Bach, Johann Sebastian (1685 - 1750)
Winds & String Orchestra3 other versions
MAGATAGAN, MICHAEL (1960 - )
|Publisher :||MAGATAGAN, MICHAEL|
|Copyright :||Public Domain|
|Added by magataganm, 06 Dec 2015|
Ich hatte viel Bekümmernis (I had much grief), BWV 21,[a] is a church cantata by Johann Sebastian Bach. He composed it in Weimar, possibly in 1713, partly even earlier, and used it in 1714 and later for the third Sunday after Trinity. The work marks a transition between motet style on biblical and hymn text to operatic recitatives and arias on contemporary poetry. He catalogued the work as e per ogni tempo (and for all times), indicating that due to its general theme the cantata is suited for any occasion.
The text is probably written by the court poet Salomon Franck, including four biblical quotations from three psalms and the Book of Revelation, juxtaposed in one movement with two stanzas from Georg Neumark's hymn "Wer nur den lieben Gott lässt walten". The cantata possibly began as a work of dialog and four motets on biblical verses. In its 1723 version, it is structured in eleven movements, including an opening sinfonia and additional recitatives and arias. It is divided in two parts to be performed before and after the sermon, and scored for three vocal soloists (soprano, tenor, and bass), a four-part choir, three trumpets, timpani, oboe, strings and basso continuo. Bach led a performance in the court chapel of Schloss Weimar on 17 June 1714, known as the Weimar version. He revised the work for performances, possibly in Hamburg and several revivals in Leipzig, adding for the first Leipzig version four trombones doubling the voices.
Bach composed the cantata in Weimar, but the composition history is complicated and not at all stages certain. Findings by Martin Petzoldt suggest that the cantata began with the later movements 2–6 and 9, most of them on biblical text, performed at a memorial service of Aemilia Maria Haress, the wife of a former prime-minister of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt at the St. Peter und Paul in Weimar on 8 October 1713. Bach may then have expanded it and presented it for his application in December 1713 at the Liebfrauenkirche in Halle. The performance material of this event, the only surviving source, shows on the title page the designation e per ogni tempo, indicating that the cantata with its general readings and texts is suitable for any occasion.
The music for this early cantata uses motet style in the choral movements. Biblical words are used in a prominent way. They are treated in choral movements, different from other cantatas of the Weimar period where they were typically composed as recitatives. John Eliot Gardiner, who conducted all of Bach's church cantatas in 2000 as the Bach Cantata Pilgrimage, termed the cantata "one of the most extraordinary and inspired of Bach's vocal works'. He notes aspects of the music which are similar to movements in Bach's early cantatas, suggesting that they may have been composed already when Bach moved to Weimar in 1708: the psalm verses resemble movements of cantatas such as Nach dir, Herr, verlanget mich, BWV 150, and Aus der Tiefen rufe ich, Herr, zu dir, BWV 131, the dialogue of the Soul and Jesus (movement 8) is reminiscent of the Actus tragicus, and the hymn in motet style (movement 9) recalls movements 2 and 5 of the chorale cantata Christ lag in Todes Banden, BWV 4.
The cantata in eleven movements is structured in two parts, Part I (movements 1–6) to be performed before the sermon, Part II (7–11) after the sermon. It is scored for three vocal soloists (soprano (S), tenor (T) and bass (B)), a four-part choir SATB, three trumpets (Tr) and timpani only in the final movement, four trombones (Tb) (only in later versions to double voices in the second stanza of the chorale), oboe (Ob), two violins (Vl), viola (Va), and basso continuo (Bc), with bassoon (Fg) and organ (Org) explicitly indicated. The duration is given as 44 minutes.
Source: Wikipedia (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ich_hatte_viel_Bek%C3%BC mmernis,_BWV_21).
In a movement unusual in Bach works, which originally concluded the cantata, biblical text from a psalm, "Sei nun wieder zufrieden, meine Seele" (Be at peace again, my soul), is juxtaposed with two stanzas from Georg Neumark's hymn, stanza 2, "Was helfen uns die schweren Sorgen" (What good are heavy worries?), and stanza 5, "Denk nicht in deiner Drangsalshitze" (Think not, in your heat of despair,) The first hymn stanza is sung by the tenor to solo voices rendering the biblical text. In the second stanza the soprano has the melody, the voices are doubled by a choir of trombones introduced in the Leipzig version of 1723..
I created this Arrangement of the third Chorus: "Sei nun wieder zufrieden, meine Seele" (Be at peace again, my soul) for Winds (Flute, Oboe, Bb Clarinet, English Horn, French Horn & Bassoon) & Strings (2 Violins, Viola & Cello).
|Sheet central :||Ich hatte viel Bekümmernis (15 sheet music)|
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